SGD-Marine Biota Article Database

This page provides a list of articles that document how SGD affects the biology of the marine environment. Complete reference information, keywords, and links to the original article (when available) are provided. To have your paper added to the database ensure it meets the following criteria and email a copy with 5-8 keywords to alecher@lynn.edu. Field, laboratory, and modeling studies are welcome. A comprehensive chronological list of the articles is below. However, the database can also be searched using keywords in the search bar on the right hand side.

Published in a peer-reviewed journal
Measures (qualitatively or quantitatively) the impact of SGD on one of the following:
Biodiversity or species richness
Abundance of a specific organism
Chlorophyll concentration
Calcification rates
Respiration rates
Photosynthesis
Transport of organisms
Feeding behavior
Isotopic values of an organism
Nitrogen fixation/denitrification
Methanogenesis/methane oxidation
Other organism-mediated chemical reactions 
Other impacts on organisms


2020


Starke, C., Ekau, W., & Moosdorf, N. (2020). Enhanced productivity and fish abundance at a submarine spring in a coastal lagoon on Tahiti, French Polynesia. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 809. Link

Amato, D. W., Whittier, R. B., Dulai, H., & Smith, C. M. (2020). Algal bioassays detect modeled loading of wastewater-derived nitrogen in coastal waters of OʻAHU, HAWAIʻI. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 150, 110668. Link


2019


Adolf, J. E., Burns, J., Walker, J. K., & Gamiao, S. (2019). Near shore distributions of phytoplankton and bacteria in relation to submarine groundwater discharge-fed fishponds, Kona coast, Hawai ‘i, USA. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 219, 341-353. Link

Lilkendey, J., Pisternick, T., Neumann, S. I., Dumur Neelayya, D., Bröhl, S., Neehaul, Y., & Moosdorf, N. (2019). Fresh submarine groundwater discharge augments growth in a reef fish. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 613.  Link

Vollberg, F., Walther, M., Gärdes, A., & Moosdorf, N. (2019). Modeling the Potential of Submarine Groundwater Discharge to Facilitate Growth of Vibrio cholerae Bacteria. Hydrology, 6(2), 39.  Link

Shoji, J., & Sugimoto, R. (2019). Increase in fish production through bottom-up trophic linkage in coastal waters induced by nutrients supplied via submarine groundwater. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 7, 82.  Link

Murray, J., Prouty, N. G., Peek, S., & Paytan, A. (2019). Coral Skeleton δ 15 N as a Tracer of Historic Nutrient Loading to a Coral Reef in Maui, Hawaii. Scientific reports, 9(1), 5579.  Link

Martinez, A., Crook, E. D., Barshis, D. J., Potts, D. C., Rebolledo-Vieyra, M., Hernandez, L., & Paytan, A. (2019). Species-specific calcification response of Caribbean corals after 2-year transplantation to a low aragonite saturation submarine spring. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 286(1905), 20190572.  Link

Wall, M., Fietzke, J., Crook, E. D., & Paytan, A. (2019). Using B isotopes and B/Ca in corals from low saturation springs to constrain calcification mechanisms. Nature communications, 10(1), 1-9.  Link

Andrisoa, A., Stieglitz, T. C., Rodellas, V., & Raimbault, P. (2019). Primary production in coastal lagoons supported by groundwater discharge and porewater fluxes inferred from nitrogen and carbon isotope signatures. Marine Chemistry, 210, 48-60.  Link

Oberle, F. K., Storlazzi, C. D., Cheriton, O. M., Takesue, R., Hoover, D. J., Logan, J., ... & Swarzenski, P. W. (2019). Physicochemical controls on zones of higher coral stress where Black Band Disease occurs at Mākua Reef, Kauaʻi, Hawaiʻi. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, 552.  Link


2018


Amato, D., Smith, C., & Duarte, T. (2018). Submarine Groundwater Discharge Differentially Modifies Photosynthesis, Growth, and Morphology for Two Contrasting Species of Gracilaria (Rhodophyta). Hydrology, 5(4), 65.  Link

Lecher, A., & Mackey, K. (2018). Synthesizing the effects of submarine groundwater discharge on marine biota. Hydrology, 5(4), 60.  Link

Lubarsky, K. A., Silbiger, N. J., & Donahue, M. J. (2018). Effects of submarine groundwater discharge on coral accretion and bioerosion on two shallow reef flats. Limnology and Oceanography, 63(4), 1660-1676.  Link

Prouty, N. G., Yates, K. K., Smiley, N., Gallagher, C., Cheriton, O., & Storlazzi, C. D. (2018). Carbonate system parameters of an algal-dominated reef along West Maui. Biogeosciences, 15(8), 2467-2480.  Link

Grzelak, K., Tamborski, J., Kotwicki, L., & Bokuniewicz, H. (2018). Ecostructuring of marine nematode communities by submarine groundwater discharge. Marine environmental research, 136, 106-119.  Link

Honda, H., Sugimoto, R., & Kobayashi, S. (2018). Submarine Groundwater Discharge and its Influence on Primary Production in Japanese Coasts: Case Study in Obama Bay. In The Water-Energy-Food Nexus (pp. 101-115). Springer, Singapore.  Link

Sospedra, J., Niencheski, L. F. H., Falco, S., Andrade, C. F., Attisano, K. K., & Rodilla, M. (2018). Identifying the main sources of silicate in coastal waters of the Southern Gulf of Valencia (Western Mediterranean Sea). Oceanologia, 60(1), 52-64.  Link

Martinez, A., Hernández-Terrones, L., Rebolledo-Vieyra, M., & Paytan, A. (2018). Impact of carbonate saturation on large Caribbean benthic foraminifera assemblages. Biogeosciences, 15(22).  Link

Piló, D., Barbosa, A. B., Teodósio, M. A., Encarnação, J., Leitão, F., Range, P., ... & Chícharo, L. (2018). Are submarine groundwater discharges affecting the structure and physiological status of rocky intertidal communities?. Marine environmental research, 136, 158-173.  Link

Erler, D. V., Shepherd, B. O., Linsley, B. K., Lough, J. M., & Cantin, N. E. (2018). Coral Skeletons Record Increasing Agriculture‐Related Groundwater Nitrogen Inputs to a South Pacific Reef Over the Past Century. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(16), 8370-8378.  Link

Jiang, W., Yu, K., Song, Y., Zhao, J. X., Feng, Y. X., Wang, Y., & Xu, S. (2018). Coral geochemical record of submarine groundwater discharge back to 1870 in the northern South China Sea. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 507, 30-38.  Link

Kamermans, P., Hemminga, M. A., Tack, J. F., Mateo, M. A., Marbà, N., Mtolera, M., ... & Van Daele, T. (2002). Groundwater effects on diversity and abundance of lagoonal seagrasses in Kenya and on Zanzibar Island (East Africa). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 231, 75-83.  Link


2017


Richardson, C. M., Dulai, H., Popp, B. N., Ruttenberg, K., & Fackrell, J. K. (2017). Submarine groundwater discharge drives biogeochemistry in two Hawaiian reefs. Limnology and Oceanography, 62(S1), S348-S363.  Link

Prouty, N. G., Cohen, A., Yates, K. K., Storlazzi, C. D., Swarzenski, P. W., & White, D. (2017). Vulnerability of coral reefs to bioerosion from land‐based sources of pollution. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122(12), 9319-9331.  Link

McMahon, A., & Santos, I. R. (2017). Nitrogen enrichment and speciation in a coral reef lagoon driven by groundwater inputs of bird guano. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122(9), 7218-7236.  Link

Lee, E., Shin, D., Hyun, S. P., Ko, K. S., Moon, H. S., Koh, D. C., ... & Kim, B. Y. (2017). Periodic change in coastal microbial community structure associated with submarine groundwater discharge and tidal fluctuation. Limnology and Oceanography, 62(2), 437-451.  Link

Kwon, H. K., Kang, H., Oh, Y. H., Park, S. R., & Kim, G. (2017). Green tide development associated with submarine groundwater discharge in a coastal harbor, Jeju, Korea. Scientific reports, 7(1), 6325. Link

Lecher, A., Mackey, K., & Paytan, A. (2017). River and submarine groundwater discharge effects on diatom phytoplankton abundance in the Gulf of Alaska. Hydrology, 4(4), 61.  Link

Donis, D., Janssen, F., Liu, B., Wenzhöfer, F., Dellwig, O., Escher, P., ... & Böttcher, M. E. (2017). Biogeochemical impact of submarine ground water discharge on coastal surface sands of the southern Baltic Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 189, 131-142.  Link

Darnell, K. M., & Dunton, K. H. (2017). Plasticity in turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum) flower production as a response to porewater nitrogen availability. Aquatic botany, 138, 100-106.  Link

Takeuchi, M., Tominaga, O., Sugimoto, R., Kitagawa, K., Yamanda, M., Honda, H., ... & Taniguchi, M. (2017). Evaluation of the environmental condition of Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) by using nitrate stable isotope ratio recorded in sea lettuce (Ulva sp.). Proceedings of the JSFS 85th Anniversary-Commemorative International Symposim “Fisheries Science for Future Generations”, Tokyo, Japan, 22-24.

Utsunomiya, T., Hata, M., Sugimoto, R., Honda, H., Kobayashi, S., Miyata, Y., ... & Taniguchi, M. (2017). Higher species richness and abundance of fish and benthic invertebrates around submarine groundwater discharge in Obama Bay, Japan. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies, 11, 139-146.  Link


2016


Amato, D. W., Bishop, J. M., Glenn, C. R., Dulai, H., & Smith, C. M. (2016). Impact of submarine groundwater discharge on marine water quality and reef biota of Maui. PLoS One, 11(11), e0165825.  Link

Hata, M., Sugimoto, R., Hori, M., Tomiyama, T., & Shoji, J. (2016). Occurrence, distribution and prey items of juvenile marbled sole Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae around a submarine groundwater seepage on a tidal flat in southwestern Japan. Journal of sea research, 111, 47-53.  Link


2015


Lecher, A. L., Mackey, K., Kudela, R., Ryan, J., Fisher, A., Murray, J., & Paytan, A. (2015). Nutrient loading through submarine groundwater discharge and phytoplankton growth in Monterey Bay, CA. Environmental science & technology, 49(11), 6665-6673.  Link

Welti, N., Gale, D., Hayes, M., Kumar, A., Gasparon, M., Gibbes, B., & Lockington, D. (2015). Intertidal diatom communities reflect patchiness in groundwater discharge. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 163, 116-124.  Link

Encarnação, J., Leitão, F., Range, P., Piló, D., Chícharo, M. A., & Chícharo, L. (2015). Local and temporal variations in near‐shore macrobenthic communities associated with submarine groundwater discharges. Marine ecology, 36(4), 926-941.  Link

Lee, J., & Kim, G. (2015). Dependence of coastal water pH increases on submarine groundwater discharge off a volcanic island. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 163, 15-21.  Link

2014


Kotwicki, L., Grzelak, K., Czub, M., Dellwig, O., Gentz, T., Szymczycha, B., & Böttcher, M. E. (2014). Submarine groundwater discharge to the Baltic coastal zone: Impacts on the meiofaunal community. Journal of Marine Systems, 129, 118-126.  Link

Su, N., Burnett, W. C., MacIntyre, H. L., Liefer, J. D., Peterson, R. N., & Viso, R. (2014). Natural radon and radium isotopes for assessing groundwater discharge into Little Lagoon, AL: implications for harmful algal blooms. Estuaries and coasts, 37(4), 893-910.  Link

Machado, D. A., & Imberger, J. (2014). Modeling the impact of natural and anthropogenic nutrient sources on phytoplankton dynamics in a shallow coastal domain, Western Australia. Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 14(1), 87-111.  Link


2013


Crook, E. D., Cohen, A. L., Rebolledo-Vieyra, M., Hernandez, L., & Paytan, A. (2013). Reduced calcification and lack of acclimatization by coral colonies growing in areas of persistent natural acidification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(27), 11044-11049.  Link

Carvalho, L. F., Rocha, C., Fleming, A., Veiga-Pires, C., & Aníbal, J. (2013). Interception of nutrient rich submarine groundwater discharge seepage on European temperate beaches by the acoel flatworm, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. Marine pollution bulletin, 75(1-2), 150-156.  Link

Encarnação, J., Leitão, F., Range, P., Piló, D., Chícharo, M. A., & Chícharo, L. (2013). The influence of submarine groundwater discharges on subtidal meiofauna assemblages in south Portugal (Algarve). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 130, 202-208.  Link


2012


Peterson, B. J., Stubler, A. D., Wall, C. C., & Gobler, C. J. (2012). Nitrogen-rich groundwater intrusion affects productivity, but not herbivory, of the tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Aquatic Biology, 15(1), 1-9.  Link

Crook, E. D., Potts, D., Rebolledo-Vieyra, M., Hernandez, L., & Paytan, A. (2012). Calcifying coral abundance near low-pH springs: implications for future ocean acidification. Coral Reefs, 31(1), 239-245.  Link

Su, N., Burnett, W. C., Eller, K. T., MacIntyre, H. L., Mortazavi, B., Liefer, J. D., & Novoveská, L. (2012). Radon and radium isotopes, groundwater discharge and harmful algal blooms in Little Lagoon, Alabama. Interdisciplinary studies on environmental chemistry, 6, 329-337.  Link

Silva, A. C. F., Tavares, P., Shapouri, M., Stigter, T. Y., Monteiro, J. P., Machado, M., ... &Ribeiro, L. (2012). Estuarine biodiversity as an indicator of groundwater discharge. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 97, 38-43.  Link


2011


Waska, H., & Kim, G. (2011). Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) as a main nutrient source for benthic and water-column primary production in a large intertidal environment of the Yellow Sea. Journal of Sea Research, 65(1), 103-113.  Link

Blanco, A. C., Watanabe, A., Nadaoka, K., Motooka, S., Herrera, E. C., & Yamamoto, T. (2011). Estimation of nearshore groundwater discharge and its potential effects on a fringing coral reef. Marine pollution bulletin, 62(4), 770-785.

Garcés, E., Basterretxea, G., & Tovar-Sánchez, A. (2011). Changes in microbial communities in response to submarine groundwater input. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 438, 47-58.  Link

Ouisse, V., Riera, P., Migné, A., Leroux, C., & Davoult, D. (2011). Freshwater seepages and ephemeral macroalgae proliferation in an intertidal bay: I Effect on benthic community structure and food web. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 91(2), 272-281.  Link

Migné, A., Ouisse, V., Hubas, C., & Davoult, D. (2011). Freshwater seepages and ephemeral macroalgae proliferation in an intertidal bay: II. Effect on benthic biomass and metabolism. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 92(1), 161-168.  Link


2010


Lee, Y. W., Kim, G., Lim, W. A., & Hwang, D. W. (2010). A relationship between submarine groundwater borne nutrients traced by Ra isotopes and the intensity of dinoflagellate red‐tides occurring in the southern sea of Korea. Limnology and oceanography, 55(1), 1-10.  Link

Waska, H., & Kim, G. (2010). Differences in microphytobenthos and macrofaunal abundances associated with groundwater discharge in the intertidal zone. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 407, 159-172.  Link

Futch, J. C., Griffin, D. W., & Lipp, E. K. (2010). Human enteric viruses in groundwater indicate offshore transport of human sewage to coral reefs of the Upper Florida Keys. Environmental microbiology, 12(4), 964-974.  Link

Rogers, D. R., & Casciotti, K. L. (2010). Abundance and diversity of archaeal ammonia oxidizers in a coastal groundwater system. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 76(24), 7938-7948.  Link

Troccoli-Ghinaglia, L., Herrera-Silveira, J. A., Comín, F. A., & Díaz-Ramos, J. R. (2010). Phytoplankton community variations in tropical coastal area affected where submarine groundwater occurs. Continental Shelf Research, 30(20), 2082-2091.


2009

Liefer, J. D., MacIntyre, H. L., Novoveska, L., Smith, W. L., & Dorsey, C. P. (2009). Temporal and spatial variability in Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in Alabama coastal waters: a “hot spot” linked to submarine groundwater discharge?. Harmful Algae, 8(5), 706-714.  Link


2008


Knee, K. L., Layton, B. A., Street, J. H., Boehm, A. B., & Paytan, A. (2008). Sources of nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria to nearshore waters on the north shore of Kauai (Hawaii, USA). Estuaries and Coasts, 31(4), 607-622.  Link

Santoro, A. E., Francis, C. A., De Sieyes, N. R., & Boehm, A. B. (2008). Shifts in the relative abundance of ammonia‐oxidizing bacteria and archaea across physicochemical gradients in a subterranean estuary. Environmental microbiology, 10(4), 1068-1079.  Link

Blanco, A. C., Nadaoka, K., & Yamamoto, T. (2008). Planktonic and benthic microalgal community composition as indicators of terrestrial influence on a fringing reef in Ishigaki Island, Southwest Japan. Marine Environmental Research, 66(5), 520-535.  Link

De Sieyes, N. R., Yamahara, K. M., Layton, B. A., Joyce, E. H., & Boehm, A. B. (2008). Submarine discharge of nutrient‐enriched fresh groundwater at Stinson Beach, California is enhanced during neap tides. Limnology and Oceanography, 53(4), 1434-1445.  Link

Dale, R. K., & Miller, D. C. (2008). Hydrologic interactions of infaunal polychaetes and intertidal groundwater discharge. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 363, 205-215.  Link


2007


Lee, Y. W., & Kim, G. (2007). Linking groundwater-borne nutrients and dinoflagellate red-tide outbreaks in the southern sea of Korea using a Ra tracer. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 71(1-2), 309-317.  Link


Derse, E., Knee, K. L., Wankel, S. D., Kendall, C., Berg, C. J., & Paytan, A. (2007). Identifying sources of nitrogen to Hanalei Bay, Kauai, utilizing the nitrogen isotope signature of macroalgae. Environmental science & technology, 41(15), 5217-5223.  Link


2006


Santoro, A. E., Boehm, A. B., & Francis, C. A. (2006). Denitrifier community composition along a nitrate and salinity gradient in a coastal aquifer. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 72(3), 2102-2109.  Link

Hu, C., Muller‐Karger, F. E., & Swarzenski, P. W. (2006). Hurricanes, submarine groundwater discharge, and Florida's red tides. Geophysical Research Letters, 33(11).  Link

Álvarez-Góngora, C., & Herrera-Silveira, J. A. (2006). Variations of phytoplankton community structure related to water quality trends in a tropical karstic coastal zone. Marine pollution bulletin, 52(1), 48-60.  Link

Taylor, G. T., Gobler, C. J., & Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A. (2006). Speciation and concentrations of dissolved nitrogen as determinants of brown tide Aureococcus anophagefferens bloom initiation. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 312, 67-83.  Link



2005


Hwang, D. W., Lee, Y. W., & Kim, G. (2005). Large submarine groundwater discharge and benthic eutrophication in Bangdu Bay on volcanic Jeju Island, Korea. Limnology and Oceanography, 50(5), 1393-1403.  Link

Lapointe, B. E., Barile, P. J., Littler, M. M., & Littler, D. S. (2005). Macroalgal blooms on southeast Florida coral reefs: II. Cross-shelf discrimination of nitrogen sources indicates widespread assimilation of sewage nitrogen. Harmful Algae, 4(6), 1106-1122.  Link

Carruthers, T. J. B., Van Tussenbroek, B. I., & Dennison, W. C. (2005). Influence of submarine springs and wastewater on nutrient dynamics of Caribbean seagrass meadows. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 64(2-3), 191-199.  Link

Zipperle, A., & Reise, K. (2005). Freshwater springs on intertidal sand flats cause a switch in dominance among polychaete worms. Journal of Sea Research, 54(2), 143-150.  Link


2004


Boehm, A. B., Shellenbarger, G. G., & Paytan, A. (2004). Groundwater discharge: potential association with fecal indicator bacteria in the surf zone. Environmental science & technology, 38(13), 3558-3566.  Link

Miller, D. C., & Ullman, W. J. (2004). Ecological consequences of ground water discharge to Delaware Bay, United States. Groundwater, 42(7), 959-970.  Link


2003


Lirman, D., Orlando, B., Maciá, S., Manzello, D., Kaufman, L., Biber, P., & Jones, T. (2003). Coral communities of Biscayne Bay, Florida and adjacent offshore areas: diversity, abundance, distribution, and environmental correlates. Aquatic Conservation: marine and freshwater ecosystems, 13(2), 121-135.  Link

Gobler, C. J., & Boneillo, G. E. (2003). Impacts of anthropogenically influenced groundwater seepage on water chemistry and phytoplankton dynamics within a coastal marine system. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 255, 101-114.  Link


2002


Umezawa, Y., Miyajima, T., Yamamuro, M., Kayanne, H., & Koike, I. (2002). Fine‐scale mapping of land‐derived nitrogen in coral reefs by δ15N in macroalgae. Limnology and Oceanography, 47(5), 1405-1416.  Link

Gagan, M. K., Ayliffe, L. K., Opdyke, B. N., Hopley, D., Scott‐Gagan, H., & Cowley, J. (2002). Coral oxygen isotope evidence for recent groundwater fluxes to the Australian Great Barrier Reef. Geophysical Research Letters, 29(20), 43-1.  Link


2001


Gobler, C. J., & Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S. A. (2001). Temporal variability of groundwater seepage and brown tide blooms in a Long Island embayment. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 217, 299-309.  Link


1999


Bussmann, I., Dando, P. R., Niven, S. J., & Suess, E. (1999). Groundwater seepage in the marine environment: role for mass flux and bacterial activity. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 178, 169-177.  Link

Rutkowski, C. M., Burnett, W. C., Iverson, R. L., & Chanton, J. P. (1999). The effect of groundwater seepage on nutrient delivery and seagrass distribution in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Estuaries, 22(4), 1033-1040. Link


1997


Lapointe, B. E. (1997). Nutrient thresholds for bottom‐up control of macroalgal blooms on coral reefs in Jamaica and southeast Florida. Limnology and Oceanography, 42(5part2), 1119-1131.  Link

LaRoche, J., Nuzzi, R., Waters, R., Wyman, K., Falkowski, P., & Wallace, D. (1997). Brown tide blooms in Long Island’s coastal waters linked to interannual variability in groundwater flow. Global Change Biology, 3(5), 397-410.

McClelland, J. W., Valiela, I., & Michener, R. H. (1997). Nitrogen‐stable isotope signatures in estuarine food webs: A record of increasing urbanization in coastal watersheds. Limnology and Oceanography, 42(5), 930-937. Link


1996


Short, F. T., & Burdick, D. M. (1996). Quantifying eelgrass habitat loss in relation to housing development and nitrogen loading in Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts. Estuaries, 19(3), 730-739.  Link


1992


Valiela, I., Foreman, K., LaMontagne, M., Hersh, D., Costa, J., Peckol, P., ... & Brawle, J. (1992). Couplings of watersheds and coastal waters: sources and consequences of nutrient enrichment in Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts. Estuaries, 15(4), 443-457.  Link


1982


Sewell, P. L. (1982). Urban groundwater as a possible nutrient source for an estuarine benthic algal bloom. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 15(5), 569-576.  Link


1967


Kohout, F. A. (1967). Biological zonation related to groundwater discharge along the shore of Biscayne Bay, Miami, Florida. In Eatuaries Conf. On Estuaries (pp. 488-499). Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci..